When a person puts up a tent, the first stake placed in the ground largely determines the location of the entire tent. Dating the New Testament works in much the same way. Because there are many connections between New Testament books, moving the date of one book tends to drag the dates of a number of other books along with it. Therefore, it is important to decide which book ought to be the first stake, and where on the timeline that stake should be placed. Most modern scholarship identifies the gospel of Mark as the earliest gospel, setting Mark down as the first stake for the tent and working from there. There are good reasons for doing this.
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The Dating of the New Testament
authorship - When Was The Gospel of Luke Written? - Christianity Stack Exchange
Matthew, Mark and Luke together are called the synoptic "same eye" gospels. This is due to the close relationship between the three, as all three tell many of the same stories, often in the same way and with the same words. Of the verses in Mark, Matthew reproduces of them and Luke reproduces of them. Of the 55 verses in Mark but not Matthew, 31 are present in Luke. The accounts are so similar that even a little parenthesis -"he said top the paralytic"- occurs in all three accounts in exactly the same place. There are three fundamental observations about the synoptic gospels that all seem true, but on the surface, they are not consistent and at least one of them must be false.
Gospel of Luke
The Marcion hypothesis or Marcionite priority or priority of the Marcionite Gospel is a possible solution to the synoptic problem. This hypothesis claims that the first produced or compiled gospel was that of Marcion and that this gospel of Marcion was used as inspiration either for some of the canonical gospels , or for all the canonical gospels Matthew , Mark , Luke , and John. The major supporter of this hypothesis is at present Matthias Klinghardt. Marcion of Sinope is regarded by many scholars as having produced the first New Testament canon. Tyson,  Jason BeDuhn , Markus Vinzent , Matthias Klinghardt ,  and David Trobisch  have dissented from the traditional view that the Gospel of Marcion was a revision of the Gospel of Luke this traditional view may be called the " patristic hypothesis".
Luke begins the second chapter of his Gospel with a chronological note about when Jesus was born, writing:. In those days a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. This was the first enrollment, when Quirinius was governor of Syria [Luke ]. This passage has been subject to a lot of criticism, because Luke has already linked the birth of Jesus to reign of Herod the Great Luke , and Quirinius did not become governor of Syria until years afterwards.